Your neighbor has taught three of her dogs to do tricks on command. She taught her mastiff, Fifi to jump through a hula-hoop by using a food reward whenever Fifi would complete the jump, and scolding her when she failed.
She taught her beagle, Tobias, to walk on his hind legs whenever there was music playing by praising him when he was successful.
Her poodle, Rexy, learned to jump through the hoop and walk on hind-legs by watching the other two dogs.
In order, the behaviors of the dogs outlined above are examples of which of the following theories?